La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)


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Thomas Benjamin

International Advisory Committee

The total fertility rates in the U. Life expectancy at birth for U. For the Mexican border states, life expectancy at birth in ranged from The native indigenous population along the Mexican border area in totaled approximately , people, located primarily in Baja California, Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, and Sonora The estimated Native American population during — along the U.

The African—American population along the U. This chapter examines health determinants and health conditions along the border region. For several conditions, direct comparisons between the U. The per capita GDP for the U. The unemployment rate in the U. At the local level, the differences were more significant. San Diego, California, had an unemployment rate of 6. For the Mexican border states, the unemployment rate in , measured as the labor force for the population 14 years old or older, ranged from 5.

It should be noted that in Mexico there is a significant level of underemployment that has not been reported. Unemployment rates for the two nations are not readily comparable 18 , 19 , 20 , The education level of U. For example, in , in San Diego, California, 6. In contrast, in Brownsville, Texas, In the U.

The education level on the Mexican side of the border is more homogeneous. Water is a limited resource in several parts of the border region. Population growth along with economic development places increasing stress on water quantity and quality. The International Boundary and Water Commission IBWC is a bi—national governmental organization charged with identifying and solving boundary and surface water issues arising along the border between the U.

The IBWC is not authorized to work on transnational, groundwater issues. Access to drinking water and sanitation services has improved significantly in urban areas on the Mexican side of the border, but it is still one of the most significant physical environmental determinants of health in the rural areas of both sides of the border. Sewer services may represent wastewater collected but not treated prior to discharge.

However, access to these services is still a challenge in rural border colonias. Colonias are mostly unincorporated housing developments located primarily along the New Mexico and Texas borders; they are characterized by high poverty rates and may lack basic community infrastructure. In in the six most populous Texas border counties with colonias , there were colonias housing approximately , residents who lacked some basic services and an additional colonias with approximately 50, residents who lacked all basic services Millions of scrap tires have accumulated in 46 known tire piles throughout the border region.

As the result of a strong market for used tires, millions of tires from the U. Scrap tire piles create breeding grounds for mosquitoes, rodents, and other vectors of disease. In addition, tire pile fires are difficult to extinguish and can emit noxious fumes for months. From through , almost 6. The majority of these tires were used as fuel in cement kilns. Pilot road paving projects and other innovative, experimental reuse projects were also implemented 23 , For example, San Diego exceeded the U. In addition, Imperial Valley exceeded the U.

A number of measures, such as stricter standards on motor vehicle emissions, cleaner fuels, vehicle anti—idling programs, and road paving, have been implemented in the border region to reduce the sources of ozone and particulate matter California and Arizona have significant agricultural industries in their border areas and maintain reporting systems that track pesticide use.

Dry winters and springs and a shift from broad—based pesticides to newer, more targeted products account for part of the decline. The data suggest that most cases of pesticide exposure occur in the household setting and primarily involved household pesticides This product is licensed for industrial agricultural application, but is illegally packaged and sold to residents for household use. Road traffic accidents constitute a major public health concern in the border region-they are the leading cause of death for school—aged children in Mexico 28 and for people between the ages of 5 and 34 years in the United States In , traffic—related mortality rates in Mexican border states ranged from 8.

According to the U. Long—term declining trends in the U. The declining trend since has coincided with the slowdown of the U. The increase of violence in Mexico, mainly in the northern cities, has been associated with the implementation of national policies to crack down on organized crime and drug trafficking. In the six largest border cities, with an approximate population of 5. In the respective U. The reasons for this decline are unclear.

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One of the most significant phenomena of social violence occurring on the Mexican side of the border has been the increase in feminicide, defined as the killing of women and girls. To address this phenomenon, the Government has implemented national legislative measures such as the Law on the Right of Women to a Life Free of Violence in Chihuahua and the General Law of Women's Access to a Life Free of Violence aimed at reducing systematic female homicides The most significant natural disasters that affected the border region during — were a flood, a major hurricane, and an earthquake.

Floodwaters inundated Ojinaga's wastewater treatment plant, sending sewage into the Rio Grande. In April , the Mexicali Valley experienced an earthquake measuring 7. Despite the magnitude of the event, there were only two deaths and relatively few injuries. The damage reported included the disruption of the Mexicali—Tijuana highway, structural collapse of public buildings and private homes, partial evacuation of 17 hospitals on both sides of the border, disruption of utilities, and gas leaks Global Change Research Program 42 reported in that the average temperature in the southwestern region of the U.

No pasarán!

Rising temperatures decrease upstream mountain snowpack and precipitation and increase the evaporation rate of available water. This affects the water sources for rivers and reservoirs in the region and, as a consequence, the availability of water for human consumption. Increases in temperatures were also reported in the northern Mexico border region. Assuming a scenario of average economic growth for Mexico, average temperatures would increase between 1.

Water supplies in this region are already stressed and are projected to become increasingly scarce in the next 50 years Maternal mortality rates for the U.

In This Article

In Arizona, the rate may not be statistically reliable because of the low number of deaths. Texas had the highest rate of maternal deaths consistently from to Among African—American women living in U. For the Mexican border states, maternal mortality rates in ranged from Chihuahua consistently recorded the highest rate among the border states from to 12 , 44 , 45 , Early prenatal care percentage of live births whose mothers received prenatal care in the first trimester for the U.

Prenatal care visits number of visits for pregnant women for the Mexican border states in — ranged from 7. Teen pregnancy and childbearing is a significant issue in the U. In , infant children under 1 year of age mortality rates for the U. With the exception of and , infant mortality rates have remained statistically the same or decreased significantly each successive year from through The leading causes of infant death in U. Infant mortality rates for the Mexican border states in were about double those of the U.

They ranged from The leading causes of infant death were certain conditions originating in the perinatal period; congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities; accidents; pneumonia and influenza; intestinal infectious diseases; acute respiratory infections; and septicemia 28 , Mortality rates of children 1—4 years of age for U. Texas and Arizona reported data for children 1—14 years of age, and mortality rates in were The leading causes of death for both age groups and sexes were unintentional injuries, malignant neoplasms, congenital malformations, and assault homicide 45 , 55 , 57 , In , deaths among male children 0—4 years of age in the Mexican border states ranged from 4.


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Deaths among female children 0—4 years of age ranged from 3. The leading causes of death for both genders were unintentional injuries, congenital malformations, malignant neoplasms, intestinal infectious diseases, and septicemia 59 , Available health data specific for indigenous groups are limited. In , a study of Native American residents of Arizona showed that this population ranked poorly on maternal and reproductive health measures. On average, indigenous populations are They also had high mortality from alcohol—induced causes However, they ranked better than average on mortality rates for several chronic diseases Alzheimer's disease, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and coronary heart disease , tobacco use, and incidence of genital herpes among women giving birth In , age—adjusted mortality rates in the four U.

Crude mortality rates ranged from Mortality rates were the highest for African Americans, ranging from In , age—adjusted mortality rates in the six Mexican border states ranged from deaths per , for males and for females, World Health Organization world standard population in Tamaulipas to for males and for females in Chihuahua, compared to for males and for females for the nation. For several states, the rates have increased from previous years. For example, between and age—adjusted mortality rates in Chihuahua increased from to Crude mortality rates ranged from deaths per , population in Baja California to in Chihuahua, compared to for the nation In , 1, cases of West Nile virus infection were reported in the U.

From to , the number of reported West Nile Virus cases and deaths in the U.


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  • However, the number of cases reported on the U. The last reported continental dengue activity on the U. The number of cases in the U. Beginning in , all dengue infections diagnosed in the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Most Mexican border states have sizable dengue control programs, but the U. Rocky Mountain spotted fever RMSF , caused by Rickettsia rickettsii , is a tick—borne disease with epidemic potential that has been reported in U.

    Puebla (Mexico : State)

    Arizona reported 41 cases during this time period 69 , all associated with tribal lands and transmission from Rhipicephalussanguineus , the brown dog tick The disease has also been reported along the Mexican side of the border. The Mexicali outbreak was also linked to transmission by Rhipicephalussanguineus , and spread through infected ticks by stray and free—roaming dogs 71 Subsequent surveillance efforts have suggested that sporadic RMSF cases, likely associated with the brown dog tick, are widespread throughout many Mexican border states.

    Childhood immunization programs have been a success in both countries and in the border area itself. Immunization coverage in with a complete vaccine series in the U. It should be noted that some border counties had significantly lower coverage. Coverage of fully immunized children 1—4 years old in the six Mexican border states by the end of the second quarter of ranged from In , the incidence of acute hepatitis A and hepatitis B in the U.

    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)
    La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition) La resistencia republicana en las entidades federativas de México (Spanish Edition)

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