Physical Description p. Notes A collection of speeches given View online Borrow Buy.
English translation of 'evolução'
Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? Open to the public ; Open to the public Book Portuguese Show 0 more libraries None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search.
These online bookshops told us they have this item:. Other suppliers National Library of Australia - Copies Direct The National Library may be able to supply you with a photocopy or electronic copy of all or part of this item, for a fee, depending on copyright restrictions. The bathymetry combines the latest available data, surveyed between and Simulations were made for 30 days, with a time step of 30 s. The ocean tidal boundary conditions were taken from the Cascais tidal gauge, located close to the outer estuary, through harmonic analysis and synthesis.
The Manning friction coefficient varies between 0. The model was calibrated using the elevation data collected in at 13 stations along the estuary Figure 4. The root mean square errors obtained Figure 4 are smaller than those obtained in previous studies of this estuary. During the 20 th century, MSL along the Portuguese coast rose by about 0. Hence, future local sea level scenarios for the region can be based on global estimates. The magnitude of future SLR remains controversial among the scientific community and projections still present a large uncertainty.
The discrepancies are related not only with uncertainties in assessing future global temperatures, but also with difficulties in evaluating the contribution of melting of both glaciers and ice caps and uncertainty concerning the dynamics of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. It must be noted that the last IPCC assessment report, published after this work was concluded, suggests global mean SLR by the year that vary between 0. The present sea level was estimated as 2.
The same authors consider unlikely that, during the 21 st century in Europe, wind speed and energy density will change more than the present inter-annual variability i. The intertidal areas show an average infilling trend ca. The main channels show a slight erosional trend mean value ca. Sedimentation rates were also inferred for marginal marsh expansions at several locations, by extrapolation of the isotopic Pb Flooding of the estuarine margins, of both marine and fluvial origin, is an increasing concern.
Presently, the European Floods Directive requires all member states to develop inundation maps for areas at risk. In estuarine areas, these floods are often due to the combined effect of tides and storm surges. SLR will thus aggravate inundation hazards and in the case of the Tagus, tidal amplification by resonance can exacerbate this problem. To determine extreme forcing conditions, we followed the approach developed by Fortunato et al.
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This approach analyses data from tide gauges to determine both the extreme levels corresponding to various return periods and the time series that include these extremes. These series are then used to force a hydrodynamic model of the estuary and construct inundation maps. The determination of the time series associated to various return periods starts from a dataset of elevation measurements. In this case, we used a 24 year-long data series of hourly water elevation measured at the Cascais tide gauge, extracted from the - series, after discarding years with significant information gaps.
Gaps were considered significant when they included periods with high waves. Waves were determined from the hindcast simulations of Dodet et al.
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The measured signal was split through harmonic analysis in the following components: the yearly MSL, the astronomical tidal level and the residual, which corresponds to the signal of meteorological origin. From these three components, synthetic annual series were generated by combining:. Like most other approaches to determine extreme sea levels e.
These interactions, which are still poorly understood, are believed to be associated to different phenomena. This acceleration leads to a phase shift between the measured and predicted tide, which translates into positive negative residuals during the rising falling tide.
Secondly, the wind contribution i. The storm surge will thus tend to be higher at low tide, in particular in shallow areas with a large tidal range. Hence, the relation between the tide and the residual is complex and strongly space-dependent. Yet, it is clear that all these mechanisms are related to the non-linear terms in the shallow water equations.
Since the continental shelf in front of the Tagus estuary is very narrow km , it is unlikely that tide-surge interactions are significant outside of this estuary. This procedure provides a very large number of hypothetical annual series for each MSL scenario: in the present case, , i.
The set of all maxima in all series makes it possible to determine the probability of occurrence P of a certain extreme level z. Traditional analyses of extreme water levels work with limited numbers of extreme observations typically a few tens of years. Statistical distribution functions must therefore be fit to the data to extrapolate the maximum levels for high return periods. In contrast, the approach used herein leads to a number of annual maxima large enough to avoid the use of analytic functions.
The values obtained in this study are slightly higher than those reported by Andrade et al. Fortunato et al. To determine the series used to force the model, the synthetic annual time series from the set of , series containing a maximum level corresponding to the selected return period are retained. The initial time for each of these series is adjusted, so that the time of maximum elevation coincides, and then the series are averaged to provide the final forcing Figure 6b This approach only provides the maximum levels associated with events of marine origin.
Vargas et al. The European Floods Directive recommends that three cases are studied: a high, a medium and a low probability scenario. In Portugal, these scenarios were taken as those corresponding to return periods of 20, and years.
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For consistency with future studies, these return periods were considered herein, even though the uncertainty on the water levels associated to the year return period is clearly very high. Ocean tides are usually symmetrical, i. Non-linear processes, important in shallow areas, generate high-frequency harmonic constituents that may distort the tide e. Typically, floods are shorter than ebbs when the ratio between the tidal amplitude and depth is low. Tidal asymmetry is an important characteristic of each estuary, and there is a large body of literature on the subject e.
Tidal asymmetry is particularly relevant to sediment dynamics Aldridge, Shorter ebbs promote higher average flow velocities on ebb than on flood because the same volume of water flows in a shorter period of time. Under those circumstances, the estuary is said to be ebbdominant. Since the sediment fluxes depend non-linearly on the velocity, an ebbdominated estuary will tend to export sediments.
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Since SLR will affect the generation of tidal harmonics by nonlinear processes, it is likely to affect the pattern of tidal asymmetry. The effects of SLR on tidal asymmetry were assessed by evaluating the difference between ebb and flood durations along the estuary Figure 7.
Results confirm that the estuary is ebb-dominated in the 40 km reach upstream from the mouth Fortunato et al. This initiative aims to address a key aspect of the military regime that ruled Brazil between the relationships between the violence of a complex repressive mechanism and the many forms of resistance that reacted to the dictatorship.
For this reason, spaces identified in Rio de Janeiro cities and rural areas are the object of study and guiding thread of this project. Though there were broader structures, actors, processes, and context on a regional, national, and international scale , these sites are considered unique and indispensable vessels for understanding the history and memory of repression and resistance from this period.
The reader has in their hands a collective, multi-authored work. Each participant had a distinct perspective, topic of interest, and style in the way they approached the chosen themes and spaces. The lack of sameness did not, however, prevent participants from sharing in the special-temporal premise that grounds the project, the pattern that guides the texts, and, above all, the core goal that drove the initiative: to offer the reader a narrative about what happened in the spaces in question, supported by historical knowledge about the past and the memories of witnesses who lived through the period.
Based on the assumption that historical study historiographical knowledge, as we understand it and memory are complimentary and indispensable. Focused on public space and made for the general public, and under the aegis of human rights and democracy, this memorial process begins to make visible the demands of persecuted and victimized groups. It also begins to make available knowledge about a history that, to a large extent, remains forgotten, ignored, silenced, hidden, and even denied by the State and civil society.
The question of memory about repression during the military dictatorship does not assume the existence of a single memory, but instead of a plurality of memories. This plurality, in the slow and ongoing political process of settling the score with the violent past, involves a varied range of social, institutional, and state actors. Their dynamic implies that some memories try to impose themselves over others in a hegemonic way, even though all memories, through their very historicity, suffer changes.
These changes are inherent to processes of remembering, forgetting, and silencing that occur according to national and international shifts in context political, legal, ideological, and cultural and in the power relations between key actors. Still, the plurality of existing memories about the dictatorship does not erase the fact that the original conflict that has persisted to this day — supported by subjective experiences, lived and communicated — results in an opposition between the accounts and interpretations of associations of the family of dead and disappeared political prisoners, human rights organizations, and social movements on the one hand and, on the other, those of the military and its civilian allies.
The origin of the trauma, absence, and shortfalls in the process of memorializing the past of political violence dates back to the period of the military dictatorship. Its most important characteristics and consequences remained during the political transition to democracy and continue to project themselves, to varying degrees, into the normalization of institutional democracy in the s.
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